it作形式主语和形式宾语的用法

2021-12-04 17:38:35

指环境
It’s nice down there.
在那儿很好。
It’s getting so dark.
天很黑了。
After the storm it was calm on the sea.
暴风雨过后,大海又风平浪静了。
距离
How far is it to Shanghai ?
到上海有多远?
It’s two miles to the beach.
到海滩有两英里。
It’s about a night’s journey to this place by train.

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it的形式主语和形式宾语
It is + difficult/ hard / easy / important / necessary + for sb to do sth. 干某事对某人来说是怎么样的。
It is + kind / good / nice / clever of sb to do sth.
find / feel / think+ it + 形容词+ to do sth.发现、感到、认为干……是怎么样的
It is useful for you to learn English well.
It’s too hard to understand spoken English.  听懂英语口语太难了。
It is important for us to protect the environment .
It’s very kind of you to help me.你帮助我真是太好了。
Why did Wei Fen find it difficult to learn English?为什么魏芬发现英语难学。

主动句变为被动句所遵循的4个步骤:
把原主动句中的宾语变为被动句的主语。
把动词变为被动形式即be+过去分词,并注意其人称和数随主语的变化,而动词的时态则保持不变。
原主动句的主语如需要则放在by后面以它的宾格形式出现(注代词的宾格),如不需要则可省略。
其它的成分(定语、状语)不变。

用于强调的it
It可用来对句子的某一成分加以强调,这类句子的结构是:it+系动词+强调部分+who(m)或that+其他部分。这类句子可称为分裂句,这种结构称为分裂结构。例如:Mary is giving all her friends books for Christmas this year.(玛丽在圣诞节要向所有朋友赠书。)可改为许多强调结构:
It is Mary who is giving all her friends books for Christmas this year.(强调主语)
It is books that Mary is giving all her friends for Christmas this year.(强调直接宾语)
It is all her friends that Mary is giving books for Christmas this year.(强调间接宾语)
It is Christmas that Mary is giving all her friends books this year.(强调状语)
It is this year that Mary is giving all her friends books for Christmas.(强调状语)

some time /sometime/some times/sometimes
口诀:分开是一段,相连某时;分开s 是倍次,相连s是有时
some time一段时间,做时间状语
It takes sb. some time to do sth. 做某事花费某人多长时间
sometime adv 在(将来的)某个时候
I hope to visit the USA _____ in the future.
A. sometimes B. some times C. sometime D. some time
some times 名词词组,“几次,几倍”
Mr. Green went to Sanya some times last summer.
sometimes=at times 有时 (一般现在时的标志词)
I do that sometimes .  I think it helps.

过去式被动语态的几种句型
肯定句    主语 + be + 过去分词 + (by…)
例如:Tea plants are grown on the sides of the mountains.
茶树被种在山坡上。
否定句    主语 + be + not +过去分词 + (by…)
例如:You are not allowed to take photos.
你不允许拍照。
一般疑问句   Be + 主语 +过去分词 + (by…)?
例如:Are your ring made of silver?
你的戒指是银制的吗?
特殊疑问句   疑问词 + be + 主语 +过去分词 + (by…)?
例如:Where are the chopsticks made of?
这些筷子是哪里生产的?

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